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Milling characteristics of spelt wheat grain depending on the variety and strain

The article presents the study results on the formation of thousand-kernel weight, grain unit, depending on abiotic and biotic factors, as well as the flour output and its quality, depending on the variety and strain of spelt wheat. It is found that grain of all studied forms provides a very high flour output.

Thousand-kernel weight of spelt wheat depended on weather conditions of the research year. Thus, dry conditions in 2013 and 2015 during milk-wax maturation contributed to lower maturity of ripe grain which varied from 32.5 to 53.1 g. In 2014 with sufficient moisture content, grain was riper and its weight significantly increased to 39.0-56.9 g. In addition, this indicator was influenced by plant height and their resistance to lodging. There is a direct very high correlation between thousand-kernel weight and plant height for LPP 1221 (r = 0.99 ± 0.002), NAK34/ 12-2 (r = 0.93 ± 0.004), TV 1100 (r = 0.90 ± 0.006) strains. There is a direct high correlation for NSS 6/01 (r = 0.84±0.007), Shvedska 1 (r = 0.88±0.006) varieties and LPP 1304 strain (r = 0.89±0.009). There is a significant correlation for Zoria Ukrainy, Schwabenkorn varieties (r = 0.62±0.008) and LPP 3117 strain (r = 0.59±0.004). There is a reverse significant correlation for LPP 1224 (r = -0.70±0.006) and NAK 22/12 strains (r = -0.57±0.005). There is a direct weak correlation for other strains.

Grain of all strains, except for LPP 3373, exceeded the check variant. Their grain unit changed from 722 to 770 g/l or was greater by 2-8 %. Grain of LPP 3132 strain had the largest grain unit (770 g/l) and grain of LPP 3373 strain had the smallest one (707 g/l). Grain unit of introgressive strains varied from 698 to 729 g/l. The grain stability index was very high (from 1.03 to 1.08).

Grain unit of varieties and strains of spelt wheat varied in different ways from plant height, resistance to lodging and thousand-kernel weight. There is a direct very high correlation between grain unit and plant height for Shvedska 1 variety (r = 0.90±0.006), LPP 3117 (r = 0.92±0.002) and LPP 1304 (r = 0.98±0.005) strains. There is a significant correlation for Zoria Ukrainy (r = 0.65±0.009) and Schwabenkorn (r = 0.61±0.007) varieties and Р 3 strain (r = 0.54±0.006). There is a reverse significant correlation for LPP 1224 strain (r = -0.75±0.003). There is a weak correlation for LPP 1221 (r = -0.30±0.005) and NAK 22/12 strains (r = -0.21±0.009). There is a direct high correlation for other strains (r = 0.71±0.006–0.88±0.008).

The highest indicators are provided by the processing of grain of Zoria Ukrainy, Shvedska 1 varieties and LPP 1304, LPP 3373, LPP 3117, LPP 1197 strains, obtained by hybridization of Triticum aestivum/Triticum spelta, NAK 22/12 and TV 1100 received by introgression with an amphiploid (Triticum durum/Aegilops tauschii) and Triticum kiharae.

Key words: spelled wheat, weight of 1000 grains, nature of grain, flour yield, ash content, flour linen.



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