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Formation of soybean plant leaf surface and chlorophyll amount under integrated herbicide and biological products influence

Integrated application of herbicides and biological products requires further thorough study. In particular, it is necessary to raise the level of theoretical knowledge about the influence of these mixtures on the plant organism, to deeply explore the nature and mechanism of their action on physiological and biochemical, morphological and anatomical changes in cultivated plants. Considerable attention should be paid to the effects of symbiotic nitrogen fixation on physiological changes in plants, to the study of ways of perception by the plant of exogenous and endogenous signals and their transformation into the corresponding physiological reactions that underlie the life of plants, the formation of high productivity of crops and the quality of the crop.

The increase in crop yields is due to the improvement of the conditions of intensity and effectiveness of photosynthesis, in which the growth of the area of the leaf surface and the provision of its photosynthesis products, which are the main source for the proper functioning of the plant organism, is of primary importance. In recent years, clear ideas have been formed on the dependence, direction and productivity of photosynthesis on a number of factors, including herbicides, which reduce the level of perennial crops and improve the supply of plants by a number of vital factors. Photosynthesis occurs with the direct participation of nitrogen containing pigments – chlorophylls a and b. It has been established that herbicides of different classes, introduced separately and in combination with biological products, significantly affect the content of the main photosynthetic pigments in crop leaves, but biologics that can positively influence the content of chlorophylls in the leaves can also be used to intensify photosynthetic activity.

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of various standards of herbicide Fabian made for the backdrop of the microbiological product Risobophyt, for various ways of using the plant growth regulator Regaplant to form the area of soybean leaves and the amount of chlorophyll a and b in them.

The experiments were laid in the experimental field of the Uman NUH in a three-time repetition by a systematic method during 2013-2015. In Romantyka soybean herbs, the Fabian WG herbicides were studied in the norms of 90, 100 and
110 g/ha and the plant growth regulator Regoplant – 50 ml/ha. The same regulator was used for pre-sowing seed treatment at a rate of 250 ml/t. Risobofit was used to treat seeds before sowing in the normal range of 100 ml per hectare of seed.

The article presents the results of the research on the effects of different rates of herbicide Fabian, introduced separately and in conjunction with plant growth regulators Rehoplant for the background pre-treatment of seeds Rehoplantom and microbial preparations Ryzobofit, the formation of leaf surface of the soybean plants, and content in the leaves of the amount of chlorophyll a and b. Conducted studies have shown that the formation of leaf optimal system is the result of optimization of symbiotic systems nitrogine fixing Glycine max (L.) Merr. – Bradyrhizobium japonicum for the background of the destruction of seedlings vegetation.

As a result of the conducted studies, it was established that the area of leaves of soybean crops during the years of the research varied depending on the type, norms and methods of input of products. It is established that during the use of Risobofit (100 ml) with Régoplant (250 ml/t) + Fabian (90 g/ha) with Régoplant (50 ml/ha) composition, the optimal area of the leaf apparatus is formed, which results from the optimization of the functioning of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation Glycine max (L.) Merr system. – Bradyrhizobium japonicum for the background of the destruction of seedlings vegetation. The highest indices of the area of the leaf surface were formed in the phases, the beginning of flowering and the end of flowering – the beginning of the formation of beans in the option of coexistence of a herbicide Fabian 90-110 g/ha with a regroplant
50 ml/ha on the background of pre-seed treatment with 100 ml Risbofyte mixture and 250 mg/t, which exceeded the control indicators by 53-49 % and 49-42 %, respectively.

The consistent use of Risbofyte with Régoplant for seed treatment before sowing and the consistent application of this background Fabian with Régoplant provides an increase in the content of chlorophyll a and b in soybean leaves, which creates more favorable conditions for the passage of physiological and biochemical processes, including photosynthetic, in plants. The highest levels of chlorophyll content were observed in soybean leaves for using Fabian 90-110 g/ha in combination with a regroplant of 50 ml/ha in the background of Risbofit 100 ml with a regroplant of 250 ml/t, where the excess over control and the sum of chlorophylls was 26-25 %.

Application of the optimal composition of preparations provides an increase in the area of the leaf surface of soybean plants with an optimal content of the amount of chlorophylls a and b, which creates more favorable conditions for the passage of physiological and biochemical processes, including photosynthetic, in plants.

Key words: soybean, herbicide, plant growth regulator, microbial product, leaf area (LA), chlorophyll content (Chl a + b).


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